Exploring addiction and redemption in “A Christmas Carol”

“A Christmas Carol” by Charles Dickens is more than a beloved festive tale. It is a story of transformation, where the cold-hearted Ebenezer Scrooge learns valuable life lessons through ghostly visits, culminating in a profound redemption. While traditionally seen as a heartwarming Christmas narrative, the story’s themes are also relatable to the experience of addiction. Much like Scrooge’s insatiable craving for wealth and the resulting isolation, drug and alcohol addiction can engulf their victims, pushing them deep into solitude, denial and unhappiness.


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However, this Christmas classic also carries a message of hope and reinforces the idea that recovery and redemption are available to everyone ready to make a change.

A Christmas Carol

“A Christmas Carol” introduces readers to Ebenezer Scrooge, an old miser living in Victorian London. Renowned for his excessive greed, Scrooge loathes anything that doesn’t directly contribute to his ever-growing wealth, including the joyous occasion of Christmas. To Scrooge, Christmas is:

“a time for finding yourself a year older, but not an hour richer.”

Scrooge’s cruelty isn’t just limited to words; Scrooge vehemently refuses to contribute to charitable causes, scoffs at those who wish him a merry Christmas and treats his loyal clerk, Bob Cratchit, with disdain, providing him with meagre wages and cold working conditions.


However, on one fateful Christmas Eve, Scrooge’s life takes a dramatic turn as he is visited by the ghost of his deceased business partner, Jacob Marley. Marley’s ghost, bound in chains as a punishment for his own lifetime of greed, warns Scrooge of the torment he faces in the afterlife. He foretells the coming of three spirits who will force Scrooge to confront his misdeeds and the dismal, lonely death in store for him.

Scrooge’s addiction to wealth

Scrooge’s life revolves obsessively around his wealth but as with any addiction, his obsession with money isn’t merely about the coins and notes in his coffer. It’s a deeper craving for power, control and a misplaced sense of self-worth. Just as someone might turn to alcohol or drugs to fill a void, Scrooge clings to his wealth as a shield against vulnerability, past regrets and the uncertainties of human connection.

At every turn, Scrooge places material gain above relationships. He dismisses his nephew’s invitations to join Christmas celebrations, resentful that he married for love instead of wealth. He rebuffs charity workers, stating that those in need should die to “reduce the surplus population.” His relationship with Bob Cratchit is purely transactional: in Scrooge’s eyes, Cratchit is nothing more than a tool to further his wealth, deserving only the bare minimum wage and no warmth or kindness.

In several ways, Scrooge’s relationship with money mirrors the hallmarks of alcohol or drug addiction:

Denial: Despite clear signs of his social isolation and the pain he causes, Scrooge is in constant denial, often using his wealth to justify his actions.

Isolation: Much like individuals battling alcohol or drug addiction, Scrooge pushes away family, friends and employees, choosing the cold comfort of his money over the warmth of human relationships.

Neglect of health and well-being: Despite his immense wealth, Scrooge lives in a cold, dark and largely empty house—a stark representation of his internal emotional state.

Resistance to change: Any suggestion that challenges his way of life or asks him to part with his money, even for a good cause, is met with hostility.

Interestingly, Paul Williams who composed the music for “The Muppet Christmas Carol” was asked to work on the film just as he had overcome a 10-year drug and alcohol addiction. Williams explained that a “man addicted to finance and controlled by his greed” resonated with his own experience:

“This guy’s gone through in literature, 100 years ago, what I’m going through this month!’

The ghosts as catalysts for change

For those suffering from drug or alcohol addiction, change often requires a profound moment of clarity, a stark revelation about the damage already done and the potential issues that await if the path remains unaltered. This revelation can come from within or quite often as the result of loved ones voicing their concerns or staging an intervention.

In “A Christmas Carol,” it is the three ghosts who provide Scrooge with the revelations he needs to understand the harm his addiction to wealth is causing and to make the crucial decision to change his life:

Ghost of Christmas Past

This spirit is like the painful memories that family and friends may bring up to show their loved ones the damage their addiction has caused. As Scrooge revisits his past, he is confronted with forgotten traumas, lost love, and opportunities missed, all overshadowed by his growing obsession with wealth. This spirit highlights the root causes of Scrooge’s condition in the same way that confronting past traumas is essential in many alcohol and drug addiction rehab programmes.


Ghost of Christmas Present

The second spirit showcases the present consequences of Scrooge’s choices. This is like an intervention where the individual is made to see the harm their actions are causing right now as they are surrounded by loved ones who are hurting. Scrooge sees the warmth of his nephew’s home, the struggles and joys of the Cratchit family and the stark contrast between his isolated, cold existence and the vibrant, loving world outside. He is also shown the direct and indirect impacts of his miserly ways, from Bob Cratchit’s meagre Christmas feast to Tiny Tim’s uncertain future.


Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come (Future)

The most ominous of the spirits, this ghost shows Scrooge the grim possibilities of his future. For those battling addiction, this can mirror the fears and warnings of loved ones and health providers: the potential health consequences, the loss of relationships and the legal perils of addiction. Scrooge witnesses his own lonely death, the joy of his creditors at his demise and the tragic potential loss of Tiny Tim—all results of his continued path.


For some individuals facing drug and alcohol addiction, it can take a similar combination of reflecting on past choices, recognising present consequences and fearing a bleak future to catalyse change. Dickens encapsulates this transformative journey through Scrooge’s spectral encounters, emphasising the power of introspection and the potential for redemption.

Redemption and recovery

The beauty of “A Christmas Carol” is not just in its critique of Scrooge’s character but in its portrayal of redemption. Just as Dickens paints a grim picture of a life steeped in greed, he also showcases the incredible capacity for change within the human spirit.

Scrooge’s transformation

As dawn breaks after his haunting night, Scrooge is not the same man. His experiences with the ghosts awaken his desire to rectify his past mistakes and change his future. He begins by giving generously, reconnecting with family and ensuring that Tiny Tim receives the care he needs. The hardened miser transforms into a benevolent figure, one who embodies the spirit of Christmas throughout the year.

In the realm of addiction, Scrooge’s transformation mirrors the journey many undergo during recovery. The acknowledgement of past mistakes, the drive to make amends and the commitment to a better future are all integral stages of overcoming addiction.

The ripple effect

Addiction doesn’t just affect the individual; it impacts all the relationships surrounding them. Scrooge’s redemption is not just personal; it positively affects everyone he is connected to. Bob Cratchit’s family experiences greater security and joy, Scrooge’s nephew benefits from his renewed relationship with his uncle and the community at large experiences the generosity of a reformed man.

Likewise, when someone overcomes addiction, the positive effects ripple outwards. Broken relationships can mend, trust can be re-established, and a sense of communal support can be reinforced.

Final thoughts

At its heart, “A Christmas Carol” is a tale of hope. Dickens wanted his readers to understand that even the most miserly, isolated individual can find redemption. While “A Christmas Carol” might not be an overt tale about addiction, its themes of self-reflection, consequence and redemption resonate deeply with the experiences of those battling addiction. Recovery isn’t just about overcoming a substance or behaviour – it’s about rediscovering yourself, forging deeper connections and re-establishing a sense of purpose.

As Christmas approaches, let Dickens’ classic be a reminder that it’s never too late for change and that the path to recovery is one filled with hope and promise.

(Click here to see works cited)